Un article publié dans Le Monde évoque les échanges variés d’informations et de données entre services de renseignement. Cette place de marché, cette bourse du renseignement, n’est pas une nouveauté. Elle ne concerne pas simplement les services de renseignement. Elle inclue également les armées des pays qui y ont accès.
Ici, elle prendra la forme d’un accord « Lustre » entre la France et les USA pour les échanges de données pompées sur les câbles, là ce sera un réseau de partage d’information pour les armées réunies au sein d’une coalition (Irak, Afghanistan)…
La lecture de l’article publiée dans le monde pourra en éclairer certains. Il nous a semblé utile de porter à la connaissance de nos lecteurs des bouts de documents de l’armée américaine (les militaires, donc, mais gardez en mémoire que leur système d’information est relié à celui du monde du renseignement). Ces informations que nous reproduisons ici évoquent uniquement les échanges d’informations entre alliés, mais sont issus de documents traitant de problématiques plus larges. Certains documents sont probablement devenus publics, d’autres peut-être pas. Ils datent d’une période s’écoulant entre 2001 et 2005.
To enhance information sharing with allies, GE5 has been the leader in advocating a network-centric architecture and processes for information sharing within our largest alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This NATO network-enabling capability will link cross-domain solutions, improving operations of NATO and U.S. forces.
Operational and technical information sharing with U.S. allies was further enhanced by the Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (JWID) 2004. Working with Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) and Northern Command, JWID 2004 integrated a homeland security response-to-terrorism scenario into the multinational, multifaceted coalition, which included Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, NATO, National Security Agency, Department of Homeland Security, and non-government organizations. Continued development and subsequent testing as a result of JWID 2004 is being run by JFCOM and GE5.
NGC-Detrick provides legacy-based organizational message switching capability (AUTODIN formats) to support continued messaging interoperability with Allied and Coalition partners and non-DOD U.S. Government agencies. NGC-Detrick also supports the legacy-based Nuclear Command and Control (NC3) messaging hybrid solution. Joint Staff has tasked DISA to provide overall management and engineering support of the National Gateway System. The Army’s 302nd Signal Battalion at Fort Detrick, MD operates NGC-Detrick. Authority to Operate (ATO) is being requested at the GENSER Top Secret level.
The three disciplines critical to the warfighter are Command and Control (C2), Intelligence, and Mission Support. Information for the warfighter, whether in the air, on land, at sea, or in space—must be disseminated and accessible through integrated computer and communications systems in a secure and seamless manner. The GIG-BE must respond quickly to new joint, coalition, and organizational relationships created on demand. The warfighter chooses the types of critical information to be pushed forward and can pull other information when and where it is needed.
DOD participation in ISO is mainly through Technical Committee 184, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration, Subcommittee 4, Industrial Data and ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1), Information Technology. The venues also enable DOD to track other Information Technology standards under development within the ISO/IEC framework. JTC1 standardizes Information Technology including the specification, design and development of systems and tools dealing with the capture, representation, processing, security, transfer, interchange, presentation, management, organization, storage and retrieval of information. These standards are directly applicable to the NCES areas of data transfer, information assurance, data management, storage, application and mediation. The insight into international standards development will better enable the integration of coalition forces into the NetCentric Operations.
… called CENTRIX (Coalition SIPRNet) his C2 system of choice for coalition warfare; e.g., OEF = 62 nations & OIF = 49 nations.
We need an international strategy for IA; i.e., will our allies be able to keep up? This may be a future role for USJFCOM.
ACTD Overview. An increased emphasis on Joint, Combined, and Coalition operations requires mutual dependency on Command and Control (C2) systems of our operational partners. Potential adversaries of the United States and its allies have acknowledged C2 system disruption (cyber warfare) as a warfighting tool. Operational commanders need to quickly comprehend the status and reliability of their information systems and to determine whether they can rely on them to execute warfighting functions. Our adversaries view cyber warfare as a highly cost-effective way of confronting the U.S. without coming into direct contact with the U.S. Military. Increased reliance on Combined/Coalition operations requires integration and reliance on C2 systems of allied nations. Consequently, the C-IA COP ACTD will explore organizational integration, IA information release-ability policies, security agreements, concept of operations, damage recovery, and technologies to address Information Assurance (IA)/Information Operations (IO) across Joint, Combined, and Coalition domains.
CONOPS effort will address what kind of IA/wellness information can be shared with particular coalition partners while protecting national interests of all our partners (e.g. impact of multi-lateral and bi-lateral agreements on limiting levels of sharing.) USJFCOM will also engage US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) for their IA/Computer Network Defense (CND) operational experience and strategies, in order to build the CONOPS.
Coalition partners expressing an interest in the ACTD include:
- The Five-Eye countries – Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. The Five-Eye have existing agreements in coalition CND agreements.
- Pacific Rim (PACRIM) countries such as Singapore through the sponsorship of USPACOM. USPACOM has expressed an interest in having multiple Pacific Rim (PACRIM) partners participate, which provides a bi-lateral environment for exercises.
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) provides opportunities for exercising multi-lateral agreement capabilities.
command systems such as Linked Operational Intelligence Centers Europe (LOCE) and STONEGHOST. LOCE is the primary automated system for exchanging intelligence with NATO allies, while the STONEGHOST system is used to disseminate intelligence among the US, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A similar interoperability exists in Korea with the Pacific Information Systems Server Site-Korea. The Multinational Information Sharing Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange System defines the standards for establishing and maintaining coalition connectivity at the tactical and operational level, with reachback capability to the strategic level.”
Global Information Grid (GIG). Globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities, associated processes, and personnel for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing information on demand to warfighters, policy makers, and support personnel. The GIG includes all owned and leased communications and computing systems and services, software (including applications), data, security services, and other associated services necessary to achieve Information Superiority. It also includes National Security Systems (NSS). The GIG supports all DoD, National Security, and related Intelligence Community (IC) missions and functions (strategic, operational, tactical, and business) in war and in peace. The GIG provides capabilities from all operating locations (bases, posts, camps, stations, facilities, mobile platforms, and deployed sites). The GIG provides interfaces to coalition, allied, and non-DoD users and systems. Non-GIG IT is stand-alone, self-contained, or embedded IT that is not or will not be connected to the enterprise network.
Since NGC – Detrick directly connects to users from all of the GENSER DOD world to Allies and coalition partners to the Intelligence community,…
(Global Information Grid – GIG) The Commanders, Combatant Commands (CCs)
In addition to responsibilities in A.2 above, the CC’s shall:
- Implement NetOps visibility, monitoring and analysis, planning, coordinating/responding, management/administration and control functions within their area of interest following USSTRATCOM guidance on required capabilities, interfaces, and information exchange.
- Implement NetOps for information systems, elements of systems, or services needed for support of operations within the Command’s Area of Responsibility (AOR), coalition and allied forces, non-government organizations, and other government agencies.
- Collect, aggregate and disseminate NetOps information from coalition partners, allies, non-government agencies and other US government agencies within their area of interest.
- Release appropriate NetOps information to coalition partners and allies in consonance with foreign disclosure agreements.
- Release appropriate NetOps information to non-government agencies and other US government agencies as required to coordinate network operations within their areas of interest, as allowed under the authority set by CJCSI 5221.01B
- Defense Red Switch Network (DRSN)
- Defense Switched Network (DSN)
- Tactical Switched Networks (TSN)
- Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN)
- Base/Post/Camp/Station provided switches
- Agency provided unique systems
- National Secure Telephone System (NSTS/Gray Phone)
- Mystic Star Presidential Communications System
- Unclassified-but-Sensitive Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNet)
- Secret IP Router Network (SIPRNet)
- Coalition Wide Area Networks (CWAN)
- Service/Agency provided data networks
- Gigabit Switch Router Network (GSRNet)
- Tactical data links (TDLs)
- CENTRIXS (multinational information sharing systems)
- Defense Satellite Communications Systems (DSCS)
- Military Strategic Tactical Relay (MILSTAR)
- Mobile SATCOM Support (MSS) (Iridium, phone, and fax)
- Ultra High Frequency Follow-On (UFO)
- Fleet Satellite Communications System (FLTSAT)
- Global Broadcast Service (GBS)
- Global Positioning System (GPS)
- Commercial Satellite Communications Initiative (CSCI)
- Radio (HF, UHF, VHF, LF/VLF, ELF)
- Commercial long haul (fiber, microwave, etc).
- Integrated Digital Network Exchange (IDNX)
- Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
- SONET Transmission Manager (STM)
- DISN SONET Bandwidth Manager (BWM)
- DISN Transmission Services (DTS)
- DISN ATM – Unclassified
- DISN ATM – Classified
- Service/Agency unique transmission systems
- International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT)
- Commercial Wideband SATCOM Program (CWSP) Trojan Spirit
- Standard Tactical Entry Point (STEP)
- DISN Video Services – Global (DVS-G)
- JWICS VTC
- Secure Video Teleconferencing System (SVTS)
- CC/Service/Agency unique VTC systems
Integrated Services and/or Systems
- Global Command and Control System (GCCS)
- Global Combat Support System (GCSS)
- Defense Message System (DMS)
- Enhanced Mobile Satellite Services (EMSS) systems
- Joint Total Asset Visibility (JTAV)
- Theater Battle Management Core System (TBMCS)
- Base/Post/Camp/Station provided unique services